Intimate interactions from early life serve as the basis upon which relationships later in life are formed.
Environmental contingencies to which individuals must adapt are rooted in these relationships.
(Many parents fail to make adequate boundaries or subconsciously keep infant enmeshed.) Food sensitivities or allergies (especially milk allergy) sleep disturbance, recurrent ear infections, antibiotic treatments irritability, over-activity Are there opportunities to explore, develop self-reliance? Intellectual stimulation: Validation of growing vocabulary. Or, exposure to inappropriate behavior as models--arguing, sexuality, drugs, drunkeness, violence, crudity Moving: Disruption of familiar environment. Changes of caregivers (nannys, nursery school teachers) Separation of parents, loss of major caretaker. What is the mood in between fights--tense, withdrawn, loving? Divorce or separation of the parents--or of the client, if s/he is an adult? (i.e., people who only know of others at their own level of poverty or wealth don't experience the problems of envy or the guilt for being envied.) What have been the degrees of wealth, poverty, insecurity?
(Fathers, uncles, siblings, and others are important relationships to be cultivated.) Allowing child to sleep in his own crib? Ability: What allowances are being made for differences? Premature exposure to competition, "losing" while others "win", humiliation, pressure to perform beyond ability? Beginning to answer questions about death, God, prejudice/ Quality of Models: Opportunities to witness appropriate role behavior by adults, older children and peers. Economic experiences: Comparing with other children, other people on television?
But because they are still relatively inexperienced in life, even older teens apply these newfound skills erratically and therefore may act without thinking.
The fundamental purpose of these tasks is to form one’s own identity and to prepare for adulthood.
Puberty is defined as the biological changes of adolescence.
They rarely set their sights beyond the present, which explains younger teens’ inability to consider the long-term consequences of their actions.
By late adolescence, many youngsters have come to appreciate subtleties of situations and ideas, and to project into the future.